- Martin Luther King Jr and Rosa Parks Essay - Please select...
- The mother of the civil rights movement
- Free Rosa Parks Essays and Papers
Martin Luther King Jr and Rosa Parks Essay - Please select...
By , every southern state had outlawed blacks from sitting next to whites on trolleys and streetcars, while it was left to the whims of individual conductors whether black passengers were ordered to move from this or that seat. By the s, black passengers were enduring the same unjust treatment by city bus drivers.
Bus drivers could demand more seats for whites at any time and in any number. And drivers often forced black riders, once they had paid their fare, to get off the bus and re-enter through the back door—sometimes driving away without them, as had happened to Rosa Parks. As stories of abusive drivers and humiliating incidents continued to spread, anger in the black community grew. However, most of the time, the indignities went unchallenged. Rosa Parks' awareness of social injustice started at an early age. Growing up in Alabama, where she was born in , she hated the disrespectful way that whites often treated black people.
Her grandfather, a former slave, instilled a sense of pride and independence in her. Contrary to early portraits of Parks as a timid, tired seamstress who became an accidental figure in sparking the civil rights movement, she had years of training and experience as a civil rights advocate challenging racial injustice.
I had decided that I would have to know, once and for all, what rights I had as a human being, and a citizen. She stood alone on that day in her willingness to face great risks, just as she did in the years after as she continued to face great burdens. She and her husband lost their jobs, she received threatening phone calls, and her marriage became strained. In , she fled Montgomery for Detroit, where she eventually found steady employment working for Congressman John Conyers until her retirement in Rosa Parks is not an innovator in the traditional sense, nor would she have considered herself to be one.
Yet, her simple, spontaneous act embodies the notion of social transformation—that a new idea or way of doing things can have such far-reaching impact that it renders old ways obsolete and radically alters how people think about themselves, their social interactions, and their place in the larger world. From the late 19th through the midth centuries, segregation laws in Southern states separated African Americans and whites in almost every aspect of public life -- from railroad cars and schools to restrooms and drinking fountains.
Varying from state to state, these laws were supposed to establish facilities that were "separate but equal. United States, Tennessee, Nashville. Signs Notices. Information signs. Racial discrimination. Rest rooms. Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company. On December 1, , Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Her courageous act of protest was considered the spark that ignited the Civil Rights movement.
For decades, Martin Luther King Jr. But by the time of this button, Parks was beginning to receive long-overdue recognition. United States, Connecticut, Hampton. Buttons Information artifacts. Lapel pins. Motown Record Corporation. United States, Michigan, Detroit.
Phonograph records. Record covers. Sound recordings.
The mother of the civil rights movement
Civil rights leaders. King, Martin Luther, Jr. His leadership during the turbulent s and s urged on legislative and social change. This button -- created after King's assassination in -- commemorates his efforts to secure freedom and justice for African Americans. AAA Novelty. United States, District of Columbia, Washington. She posed here in the Mattox House, the s Georgia home of an African-American family, after she spoke to students.
That day, many youngsters who recognized her from school lessons also rushed to greet her. Henry Ford Organization. Hunter, Tim. United States, Michigan, Dearborn. Photographic prints. Mattox Family Home. Greenfield Village. Connect to more great educational resources:.
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Aspiring Innovators Resource Guide. What If. Rosa Parks brought together a unique blend of life experiences, a commitment to racial justice, and a flawless reputation to transform a single act of defiance into a defining moment for the modern American civil rights movement.
Free Rosa Parks Essays and Papers
The Montgomery City Code required that all public transportation be segregated and that bus drivers had the "powers of a police officer of the city while in actual charge of any bus for the purposes of carrying out the provisions" of the code. While operating a bus, drivers were required to provide separate but equal accommodations for white and black passengers by assigning seats.
This was accomplished with a line roughly in the middle of the bus separating white passengers in the front of the bus and African-American passengers in the back. When an African-American passenger boarded the bus, they had to get on at the front to pay their fare and then get off and re-board the bus at the back door.
As the bus Parks was riding continued on its route, it began to fill with white passengers.
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Eventually, the bus was full and the driver noticed that several white passengers were standing in the aisle. The bus driver stopped the bus and moved the sign separating the two sections back one row, asking four black passengers to give up their seats. The city's bus ordinance didn't specifically give drivers the authority to demand a passenger to give up a seat to anyone, regardless of color. However, Montgomery bus drivers had adopted the custom of moving back the sign separating black and white passengers and, if necessary, asking black passengers give up their seats to white passengers.
If the black passenger protested, the bus driver had the authority to refuse service and could call the police to have them removed. Three of the other black passengers on the bus complied with the driver, but Parks refused and remained seated. The driver demanded, "Why don't you stand up? The police arrested Parks at the scene and charged her with violation of Chapter 6, Section 11, of the Montgomery City Code. She was taken to police headquarters, where, later that night, she was released on bail.
Members of the African-American community were asked to stay off city buses on Monday, December 5, —the day of Parks' trial—in protest of her arrest.
People were encouraged to stay home from work or school, take a cab or walk to work. With most of the African-American community not riding the bus, organizers believed a longer boycott might be successful. Ads were placed in local papers, and handbills were printed and distributed in black neighborhoods. On the morning of December 5, a group of leaders from the African-American community gathered at the Mt. Zion Church in Montgomery to discuss strategies, and determined that their boycott effort required a new organization and strong leadership.
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The MIA believed that Parks' case provided an excellent opportunity to take further action to create real change. When Parks arrived at the courthouse for trial that morning with her attorney, Fred Gray, she was greeted by a bustling crowd of around local supporters, who rooted her on. Inarguably the biggest event of the day, however, was what Parks' trial had triggered.
The city's buses were, by and large, empty. Some people carpooled and others rode in African-American-operated cabs, but most of the estimated 40, African-American commuters living in the city at the time had opted to walk to work that day—some as far as 20 miles. Due to the size and scope of, and loyalty to, boycott participation, the effort continued for several months.
The city of Montgomery had become a victorious eyesore, with dozens of public buses sitting idle, ultimately severely crippling finances for its transit company. With the boycott's progress, however, came strong resistance. Black churches were burned, and both Martin Luther King Jr. Nixon's homes were destroyed by bombings. Still, further attempts were made to end the boycott. The insurance was canceled for the city taxi system that was used by African Americans.
She served as the organizations secretary from to Rosa Parks is the woman famous for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger on a bus in Montgomery in In her recent book she says; "Our mistreatment was just not right, and I was tired of it. Her arrest for violating a city law that whites and blacks must sit in different sections on buses sparked a boycott of the bus system.
An organization was formed to run the boycott; Martin Luther King, Jr. The boycott lasted days, from the 5th of December to the 20th of December